Alvaro López García

Álvaro López García

Doctor en Ciencias
Máster en Biología Agraria y Acuicultura
Licenciado en Ciencias Ambientales


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Córdoba (España), 29 Abril 1983


 

Alvaro Zaidin
En la Estación Experimental del Zaidin - Granada / CSIC


Guelph
Mi cubículo en la Universidad de Guelph


Alvaro Lopez Garcia Doctor
Diciembre 2013. Laboratorio de biología molecular del Grupo de Investigación de Matthias C. Rillig.
Inicio > Publicaciones
Science of the Total Environment (Accepted)

Cruz-Paredes C, López-García A, Rubæk GH, Hovmand MF, Sørensen P, Kjøller R. 2016. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomass ash: residual effects on plant yield, nutrition, cadmium accumulation and mycorrhizal status. Science of the Total Environment
Ver resumen / Ver publicación


FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2016)


López-García A, Horn S, Rillig MC, Hempel S. 2016. Spatial and niche-based ecological processes drive the distribution of endophytic Sebacinales in soil and root of grassland communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 10.1093/femsec/fiw079 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación


Plant and Soil
(2016)

Varela-S Cervero, López-García A, Barea JM, Azcón-Aguilar C. 2016. Spring to autumn changes in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition in the different propagule types associated to a Mediterranean shrubland. Plant and Soil. 10.​1007/​s11104-016-2912-3 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación

Mycorrhiza
(2016)

Montiel-Rozas MM, López-García A, Kjøller R, Madejón E, Rosendahl S. 2016. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements. Mycorrhiza. 10.1007/s00572-016-0694-3 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación

Mycorrhiza
(2016)

Varela-S Cervero, López-García A, Barea JM, Azcón-Aguilar C. 2016. Differences in the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities promoted by different propagule forms from a Mediterranean shrubland. Mycorrhiza. 10.1007 / s00572-016-0687-2 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación

Oecologia
(2014)

López-García A, Azcón-Aguilar C, Barea JM. 2014. The interactions between plant life form and fungal traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determine the symbiotic community. Oecologia 176: 1075-1086 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación

Plant and Soil
(2014)

López-García A, Palenzuela J, Barea JM, Azcón-Aguilar C. 2014. Life-history strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal determine succession into roots of Rosmarinus officinalis L., a characteristic woody perennial plant species from Mediterranean ecosystems.Plant and Soil 379: 247-260 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación

Plant and Soil
(2013)

López-García A, Hempel S, Miranda JD, Rillig MC, Barea JM, Azcón-Aguilar C. 2013. The influence of environmental degradation processes on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community associated with yew (Taxus baccata L.), an endangered tree species from Mediterranean ecosystems of Southeast Spain. Plant and Soil 370:355-366 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación

Journal of Arid Enviroments (2011)

Barea JM, Palenzuela J, Cornejo P, Sánchez-Castro I, Navarro-Fernández C, Lopéz-García A, Estrada B, Azcón R, Ferrol N, Azcón-Aguilar C. 2011. Ecological and functional roles of mycorrhizas in semi-arid ecosystems of Southeast Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 75:1292-1301 - Ver resumen / Ver publicación


Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomass ash: Residual effects on plant yield, nutrition, cadmium accumulation and mycorrhizal status

Resumen:

Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer. In the second growing season after biomass ash application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P-uptake and mycorrhizal status were slightly enhanced with high ash applications. Changes to the mycorrhizal community composition were evident with high ash doses. Cadmium uptake in aboveground plant tissue was unaffected by ash treatments, but increased in roots with increasing doses. Consequently, we conclude that fertilization with biomass ashes can replace conventional fertilizers without risk to barley crops in the short term.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716321246

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Spring to autumn changes in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition in the different propagule types associated to a Mediterranean shrubland.

Resumen:

Background and aims
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) appear differentially represented among propagule forms [intraradical mycelium (IRM) in colonized roots, spores and extraradical mycelium (ERM)]. However, spring to autumn changes in the AMF communities harboured in the different propagule forms has not been studied, being this the aim of the present study.
Methods
A terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach was used to monitor, in spring and autumn, the AMF community composition present in the three propagule types associated to five shrub species in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment.
Results
The AMF community composition in roots was significantly different between spring and autumn; however, no significant differences were detected in soil propagules (spores and ERM). Different trends were identified according to the preferential biomass allocation patterns of AMF phylotypes, suggesting different life strategies: those allocating mainly into IRM (belonging to the Glomeraceae), ERM (Diversisporaceae and Gigasporaceae) or spores (Pacisporaceae and Paraglomeraceae).

Conclusions

Differences of AMF taxa in the biomass allocation patterns among propagules are maintained throughout the year. Progress in the knowledge of functional features of AMF communities and their responses to seasonal variations are important for the AMF application in Mediterranean ecosystems.

link:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11104-016-2912-3

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Spatial and niche-based ecological processes drive the distribution of endophytic Sebacinales in soil and root of grassland communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 10.1093/femsec/fiw079

Resumen

The interest in endophytic sebacinalean communities has been increasing during the last decade due to the increased knowledge about their symbiotic life style and potential role for ecosystem functioning. Although they are present in many ecosystems, their abundance in individual plant roots is very limited. This fact affects their study: they are difficult to isolate and to detect in root DNA samples. To advance knowledge of the forces that shape their distribution, we approached the parallel study of sebacinalean communities in roots and soil of a grassland. Using a small-scale spatially explicit sampling design we analyzed the contribution of spatial position, soil properties, plant community and phylogenetic components to the variation of sebacinalean communities. The results revealed the presence of 11 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a high coincidence between root and soil communities: on average a single-OTU per sample was recorded for both sample types. Spatial distance was found to mainly drive the distribution of Sebacinales in soil whereas a phylogenetic plus environmental signatures mainly drove their presence in roots. Independently of the sample type, we found clear evidence of environmental filtering caused by soil pH which, furthermore, seemed to control the presence of a specialized sebacinalean OTU.



Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements. Mycorrhiza. 10.1007/s00572-016-0694-3

Abstract

In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km2 area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system.

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Differences in the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities promoted by different propagule forms from a Mediterranean shrubland >
Mycorrhizas doi:. 10.1007 / s00572-016-0687-2

Abstract

As it is well known, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization can be initiated from the following three types of fungal propagules: spores, extraradical mycelium (ERM), and mycorrhizal root fragments harboring intraradical fungal structures. It has been shown that biomass allocation of AM fungi (AMF) among these three propagule types varies between fungal taxa, as also differs the ability of the different AMF propagule fractions to initiate new colonizations. In this study, the composition of the AMF community in the roots of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., a characteristic Mediterranean shrub), inoculated with the three different propagule types, was analyzed. Accordingly, cuttings from this species were inoculated with either AMF spores, ERM, or colonized roots extracted from a natural soil. The AMF diversity within the rosemary roots was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA region. The AMF community established in the rosemary plants was significantly different according to the type of propagule used as inoculum. AMF taxa differed in their ability to initiate new colonizations from each propagule type. Results suggest different colonization strategies for the different AMF families involved, Glomeraceae and Claroideoglomeraceaecolonizing mainly from colonized roots whereas Pacisporaceae and Diversisporaceae from spores and ERM. This supports that AMF taxa show contrasting life-history strategies in terms of their ability to initiate new colonizations from the different propagule types. Further research to fully understand the colonization and dispersal abilities of AMF is essential for their rational use in ecosystem restoration programs.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Propagule types Colonization strategies Life-history traits Mediterranean environments

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The interactions between plant life-form and fungal traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determine the symbiotic community. Oecologia 176: 1075-1086

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have traditionally been considered generalist symbionts. However an increasing amount of studies are pointing out the selectivity potential of plant hosts. The plant life-form, determined by the plant life-history traits, seems to drive the AM fungal community composition. The AM fungi also exhibit a wide diversity of functional traits known to be responsible for their distribution in natural ecosystems. However little is known about the role of plant and fungal traits driving the resultant symbiotic assemblages. With the aim of testing feedback relationship between plant and fungal traits on the resulting AM fungal community, we inoculated three different plant life-forms, i.e. annual herbs, perennial herbs and perennial semi-woody plants, with AM fungal communities sampled in different seasons. We hypothesized that the annual climate variation will induce changes in the mean traits of the AM fungal communities present in the soil throughout the year. Furthermore, the association of plants having different life-forms with AM fungi with contrasting life-history traits will show certain preferences according to their reciprocal traits. We found changes in the AM fungal community throughout the year, which were differentially disrupted by disturbance and altered by plant growth form and plant biomass. Both plant and fungal traits clearly contributed to the resultant AM fungal communities. The revealed process can have implications on the functioning of ecosystems since changes in dominant plant life-forms or climatic variables could influence the traits of AM fungal communities in soil and hence on ecosystem processes.

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Life-history strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal determine succession into roots of Rosmarinus officinalis L., a characteristic woody perennial plant species from Mediterranean ecosystems

Abstract

Aims. Few studies have analyzed life-history strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of the different propagule types they produce, and their ability to colonize new seedlings. The aim was to assess whether life-history strategies influence AMF successional dynamics and assemblages.

Methods. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) seedlings, grown in a mesocosm system, were colonized by either the AMF hyphae coming from a living rosemary plant, or from spores germinating in soil. The AMF community established in the plantlets was monitored every 3 months during 2 years, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of genes coding for rDNA.

Results. The two different sources of AMF propagules resulted in a different initial community colonizing rosemary roots. AMF propagating from hyphae attached to living mycorrhizal-roots seemed to colonize faster and were season-dependent. AMF taxa originating from soil-borne propagules were most frequent over time and exhibit the dominant colonization strategy in this system. The evolution of the AMF community also revealed different strategies in succession.

Conclusions. AMF associated with rosemary evidenced contrasting life-history strategies in terms of source of inoculum for new colonization and hence survival. The observed successional dynamics of AMF have implications for understanding the ecological processes in Mediterranean environments and seasonality of colonization processes.

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The influence of environmental degradation processes on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community associated with yew (Taxus baccata L.), an endangered tree species from Mediterranean ecosystems of Southeast Spain

Abstract

Aims. To assess whether the yew roots, which are able to provide a very constant environment due to their long life-span, can maintain the original arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community during yew population decline.

Methods. The diversity of AM fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of yew was analyzed by selecting the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to construct a database of the overall community of AMF in the experimental area. A terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) approach was used to identify the AMF communities present in yew roots. Physiological and environmental variables related to topology and soil and plant characteristics were determined as markers of habitat degradation.

Results. The AMF communities within yew roots were found to be dependent on soil, plant and topological variables indicative of habitat degradation surrounding the yew. The phylogenetic diversity of AMF associated to the yews was lower in habitats more exposed to degradation than in those better conserved.

Conclusions. The target yews can be grouped into two degradation levels. AMF communities were also affected by the degradation processes affecting their hosts. This finding rules out the role of these trees as refugia for their original AMF community, a fact that should be considered in plant reintroduction programs using AMF as bioenhancers.

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Ecological and functional roles of mycorrhizas in semi-arid ecosystems of Southeast Spain

Abstract

Mycorrhizas are worldwide symbiotic associations established between certain soil fungi and most vascular plants and are fundamental in optimizing plant fitness and soil quality. Mycorrhizal symbioses improve the resilience of plant communities against environment stresses, including nutrient deficiency, drought and soil disturbance. Since these stresses are paramount in the degradation of semi-arid ecosystems in the SE Spain, a series of basic, strategic and applied studies have been made to ascertain how the activity and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi affect plant community composition, structure and dynamics in this region. These investigations are reviewed here in terms of: (i) analysing the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi; (ii) assessing the ecological and functional interactions among plant communities and their associated mycorrhizal fungal populations; and (iii) using mycorrhizal inoculation technology for the restoration of degraded semi-arid areas in Southeast Spain. Disturbance of the target semi-arid ecosystems decreases the density and diversity of mycorrhizal fungust populations. Nevertheless, the mycorrhizal propagules do not disappear completely suggesting a certain degree of stress adaptation, and these remaining, resilient ecotypes are being used as plant inoculants. Numerous field experiments, using plant species from the natural succession inoculated with a community of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi, have been carried out in revegetation projects in the semi-arid Iberian Southeast. This management strategy improved both plant development and soil quality, and is a successful biotechnological tool to aid the restoration of self-sustaining ecosystems. However, despite a 20-year history of this work, we lack a comprehensive view of the mycorrhizal potential to improve the composition, diversity, structure and functionality of drought-adapted plant communities in the Region.

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